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Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious side effects from oral contraceptives, including heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes. This risk is higher for women over 35 years of age and heavy smokers 15 or more cigarettes per day. If you take oral contraceptives, you should not smoke. Oral contraceptives birth-control pills are used to prevent pregnancy. Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Combinations of estrogen and progestin work by preventing ovulation the release of eggs from the ovaries.
PDF version. There are now several hormone and hormone-like agents that can improve the rate of growth and efficiency of feed use of farm animals. Feeding chickens with oral contraceptive steroids at the dose used by some poultry growers in Egypt has led to the formation of high estrogen residues in the muscles and the liver compared with controls.
Maguire is with Deaconess Hospital, Boston. Clinical evaluation of the pelvis, Papanicolaou smears, and histologic review of cervical biopsy specimens in patients were used to study the effects of oral contraceptive agents on the cervix. Reactivity of the cervix to contraceptive agents as judged by several histologic criteria increases as continuous use of the contraceptive agent increases; however, cervical reactivity is decreased in older women.